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Development of the Thai Elderly Resilience Scale: TERS


Sonthaya Maneerat(, Thailand)

Sang-arun Isaramalai(, Thailand)

Umaporn Boonyasopun(, Thailand)


This study aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Thai Elderly Resilience Scale (TERS). Its conceptual structure consists of three identified domains, I AM, I HAVE, and I CAN, within the 18 components that were initially used for developing the item pool. The first draft of the scale consisted of 50 items. A psychometric evaluation of content validity reliability and construct validity was conducted. The results yielded the current version of the TERS based on Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) consisting of 24 items categorized into 5 factors: 1) being able to join other people, 2) being confident in life 3) have social support 4) living with spiritual security and 5) being able to de-stress and manage problems. The scale had a high internal consistency (α=.94). A strong positive correlation between resilience and mental health scores were found (r=.84, p<.01, n=30). The newly developed TERS would be a useful tool to assess resilience in Thai elderly and can be applied to develop further studies regarding elderly Thai people.


resilience, elderly, scale development, TERS, Thailand, Thai Elderly Resilience Scale

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