ISSN 2288-6168 (Online)
Article Information


Examining the Effects of Perceived Innovation Climate on Job Calling and Extra-Role Behaviors: Mediation Analyses


Sunhee Lee(, Republic of Korea)

Hooi Kung Tan(, Republic of Korea)


Experiencing work as a calling has been associated with various positive work-related attitudes and outcomes. Recent studies have examined personal and contextual factors related to job calling; however, gaps remain in the literature on how employees’ perception of organizational environment may lead to the formation of employees’ job calling. We focused on psychological climate of innovation as the predictor of employees’ job calling and further investigated its effect on extra-role behaviors, including innovative work behavior (IWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A total of 165 Malaysian employees from diverse industries and organizations participated in a self-reported online questionnaire. We found support for the mediation model in which the association between a psychological climate of innovation and increased extra-role behaviors through increased job calling. Altogether, these findings provided new insights into the important role of innovative climate on employees’ job calling and the mediating role of job calling on extra-role behaviors within occupational settings. Theoretical and practical implications are further discussed


innovative climate, job calling, innovative work behavior, organizational citizenship behavior, Malaysian workers

Full Text

View Full Text



Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 123-167.

Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154-1184.

Baltar, F., & Brunet, I. (2012). Social research 2.0: Virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook. Internet Research, 22(1), 57-74.

Benfield, J. A., & Szlemko, W. J. (2006). Internet-based data collection: Promises and realities. Journal of Research Practice, 2(2), 1-15. Retrieved from

Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. M. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71-98). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bott, E. M., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). A two-wave longitudinal study of career calling among undergraduates: Testing for predictors. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 250-264.

Bunderson, J. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1), 32-57.

Cardador, M. T., Dane, E., & Pratt, M. G. (2011). Linking calling orientations to organizational attachment via organizational instrumentality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 367-378.

Carr, J. Z., Schmidt, A. M., Ford, J. K., & DeShon, R. P. (2003). Climate perceptions matter: A meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states, and individual level work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 605-619.

Choi, J. N. (2007). Change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: Effects of work environment characteristics and intervening psychological processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(4), 467-484.

Coleman, V. I., & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the underlying structure of the citizenship performance domain. Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 25-44.

Conway, N., Clinton, M., Sturges, J., & Budjanovcanin, A. (2015). Using self-determination theory to understand the relationship between calling enactment and daily well-being. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(8), 1114-1131.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450.

Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and validation of the calling and vocation questionnaire (CVQ) and brief calling scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242-263.

Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(4), 431-452.

Dobrow, S. R., & Tosti-Kharas, J. (2011). Calling: The development of a scale measure. Personnel Psychology, 64(4), 1001-1049.

Duffy, R. D., Douglass, R. P., Autin, K. L., & Allan, B. A. (2014). Examining predictors and outcomes of a career calling among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 309-318.

Duffy, R. D., Manuel, R. S., Borges, N. J., & Bott, E. M. (2011). Calling, vocational development, and wellbeing: A longitudinal study of medical students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 361-366.

Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2010). The salience of a career calling among college students: Exploring group differences and links to religiousness, life meaning, and life satisfaction. The Career Development Quarterly, 59(1), 27-40.

Ekvall, G., & Ryhammar, L. (1999). The creative climate: Its determinants and effects at a Swedish university. Creativity Research Journal, 12(4), 303-310.

Elangovan, A., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428-440.

Esteves, T., & Lopes, M. P. (2017). Crafting a calling: The mediating role of calling between challenging job demands and turnover intention. Journal of Career Development, 44(1), 34-48.

Farr, J. L., & Ford, C. M. (1990). Individual innovation. In M. A. West & J. L. Farr (Eds.), Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies (pp. 63-80). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

French, J. R., & Domene, J. F. (2010). Sense of “calling”: An organizing principle for the lives and values of young women in university. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 44(1), 1-14.

Glick, W. H. (1985). Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and psychological climate: Pitfalls in multilevel research. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 601-616.

Hall, D. T., & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 155-176.

Hwang, S-H. (2015). The structural relationship among hotel employees’ self-directed learning, sense of calling and job performance - Focused on mediating roles of innovation behavior. Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, 18(5), 225-250.

Hirschi, A. (2012). Callings and work engagement: Moderated mediation model of work meaningfulness, occupational identity, and occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(3), 79-495.

James, L. A., & James, L. R. (1989). Integrating work environment perceptions: Explorations into the measurement of meaning. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(5), 739-751.

James, L. R., & Jones, A. P. (1974). Organizational climate: A review of theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 81(12), 1096-1112.

Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302.

Jin, D. C. & Son, E. J. (2015). The effect of counselor’s job autonomy and opportunity for professional development on job engagement: The mediating roles of calling and self-efficacy. Korean Journal of Counseling, 16(4), 177-192.

Joyce, W. F., & Slocum, J. W. (1984). Collective climate: Agreement as a basis for defining aggregate climates in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 27(4), 721-742.

Kao, P. J., Pai, P., Lin, T., & Zhong, J. Y. (2015). How transformational leadership fuels employees’ service innovation behavior. The Service Industries Journal, 35(7-8), 448-466.

Kim, C. H., & Shim, W. S. (2012). A study on the impact of leader’s authenticity on the job crafting of employees and it’s process. Journal of Organization and Management, 36(1), 131-162.

Kim, J. Y., & Kim, H-D. (2018). The mediating effect of vocational calling on the relationship between public service motivation and job involvement of fire service officers. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education, 30(3), 1120-1130.

Kimberly, J. R. (1981). Managerial innovation. In P. C. Nystrom & W. H. Starbuck (Eds.), Handbook of organizational design, vol. 1: 84-104. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

King, E. B., De Chermont, K., West, M., Dawson, J. F., & Hebl, M. R. (2007). How innovation can alleviate negative consequences of demanding work contexts: The influence of climate for innovation on organizational outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(4), 631-645.

Lee, H-R. & Hwang, S-H. (2015). The structural relationship among hotel employees’ sense of calling, self-directed learning, innovation behavior and job performance. Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, 18(4), 175-200.

Locke, E. A. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Marchand, A., Haines, V. Y., & Dextras-Gauthier, J. (2013). Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: A theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 443-453.

Muthén, L.K., Muthén, B.O., 2012–2018. Mplus User’s Guide: Eighth Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén.

Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 157-164.

Park, J., Sohn, Y. W., & Ha, Y. J. (2016). South Korean salespersons’ calling, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(3), 415-428.

Park, S., & Jo, S. J. (2018). The impact of proactivity, leader-member exchange, and climate for innovation on innovative behavior in the Korean government sector. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(1), 130-149.

Parker, C. P., Baltes, B. B., Young, S. A., Huff, J. W., Altmann, R. A., Lacost, H. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2003). Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(4), 389-416.

Patterson, M. G., West, M. A., Shackleton, V. J., Dawson, J. F., Lawthom, R., Maitlis, S., Robinson, D. L., & Wallace, A. M. (2005). Validating the organizational climate measure: Links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 379-408.

Peterson, C., Park, N., Hall, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2009). Zest and work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(2), 161-172.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717-731.

Rousseau, D. M. (1988). The construction of climate in organizational research. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology 1988 (pp. 139-158). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Schneider, B., Brief, A. P., & Guzzo, R. A. (1996). Creating a climate and culture for sustainable organizational change. Organizational Dynamics, 24(4), 7-19.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2011). Perspectives on organizational climate and culture. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA Handbooks in Psychology. APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol. 1. Building and developing the organization (pp. 373-414). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. A. (2011). Organizational climate research: Achievement and the road ahead. In N. M. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational culture & climate (2nd ed. pp. 29–49). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2013). Organizational climate and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 361-388.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., Mayer, D. M., Saltz, J. L., & Niles-Jolly, K. (2005). Understanding organization-customer links in service settings. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 1017-1032.

Schulte, M., Ostroff, C., & Kinicki, A. J. (2006). Organizational climate systems and psychological climate perceptions: A cross-level study of climate-satisfaction relationships. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(4), 645-671.

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607.

Serow, R. (1994). Called to teach: A study of highly motivated preservice teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27(2), 65-72.

Shanker, R., Bhanugopan, R., Van der Heijden, B. I., & Farrell, M. (2017). Organizational climate for innovation and organizational performance: The mediating effect of innovative work behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 67-77.

Siegel, S. M., & Kaemmerer, W. F. (1978). Measuring the perceived support for innovation in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(5), 553-562.

Sönmez, B., & Yıldırım, A. (2019). The mediating role of autonomy in the effect of pro-innovation climate and supervisor supportiveness on innovative behavior of nurses. European Journal of Innovation Management, 22(1), 41-58.

Spector, P. E., Bauer, J. A., & Fox, S. (2010). Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: Do we know what we think we know? Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 781-790.

Turnipseed, D. (1994). The relationship between the social environment of organizations and the climate for innovation and creativity. Creativity and Innovation Management, 3(3), 184-195.

Van der Vegt, G. S., Van de Vliert, E., & Huang, X. (2005). Location-level links between diversity and innovative climate depend on national power distance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 1171-1182.

Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management journal, 41(1), 108-119.

West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1989). Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives. Social Behaviour, 4(1), 15-30.

Wrzesniewski, A. (2002). “It’s Not Just a Job” Shifting meanings of work in the wake of 9/11. Journal of Management Inquiry, 11(3), 230-234.

Xie, B., Zhou, W., Huang, J. L., & Xia, M. (2017). Using goal facilitation theory to explain the relationships between calling and organization-directed citizenship behavior and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 78-87.

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342.